The Guru 42 Universe

What would I find at the deepest darkest depths of Marianas Web

The Tao of Questy -

Body: 

I am often asked what are some of the illegal or immoral websites you can find on the mysterious and mythical part of the internet known as the dark web.  The mysterious dark web, sometimes called the dark net, is the fuel for spy movies. it helped to create WikiLeaks run by the super spy Julian Assange and it allows cyber snitches like Edward Snowden share secret information.

According to internet myths and legends, the deepest darkest depths of the internet is called Marianas Web. People are anxious to know how to find what is hiding beneath the surface in the dark web, especially in the most mysterious places. So I pondered, what if I visited Marianas Web, what would I find there?

I found instructions on finding Marianas Web from the dark web site of the Puppet Masters of Babylon. According to the Cult of Tesla, the Puppet Masters of Babylon know the truth about many mysteries.

Following the instructions, I installed my Quantum Woo Browser and connected my virtual reality goggles. I entered the IP address and login credentials I obtained from the Puppet Masters of Babylon.

I was feeling kinda seasick as room began to spin when the view came into focus. I met the ghost of Einstein and he explained to me the basics of polymeric falcighol derivation, and acknowledged that he really thought Tesla was crazy, and people shouldn't believe what they read on the internet.

I managed to get a screen shot you see below, before my nose started to bleed and I passed out.

When I woke up my virtual reality goggles were dead, and my computer display was dark.

I often wonder, had I visited the depths of Marianas Web in what I saw that night?

Perhaps it was real, or maybe an illusion, you can decide which is right.

---

I believe that Marianas Web is just a myth, but I am in search of the truth.

Wondering about the dark web and the forbidden fruit of the internet

Buzzwords from the world wide web to deep web and dark net

 

Did Nikola Tesla or Galileo Ferraris invent induction motors

GeekHistory II -

Many sources say the discoveries and inventions of Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris regarding the invention of induction motor were made entirely independently of each other.

When George Westinghouse and his team of engineers were designing their AC power distribution system, Westinghouse saw the invention of induction motor as a critical part of his final design.

Westinghouse saw Tesla's ideas as something he could use in his quest to develop AC, and purchased Tesla's alternating current patents. Not taking any chances as to who did it first, Westinghouse also purchased a U.S. patent option on induction motors from Galileo Ferraris.

Galileo Ferraris (1847-1897) was an Italian physicist and electrical engineer known for introducing the concept of the rotating magnetic field, and the invention of the rotating magnetic field asynchronous motor. Ferraris was involved in early experiments in AC power distance transmission which occurred in Germany and Italy in the early 1880s.

Galileo Ferraris is little known in the United States, having spent his entire life in Italy, and never worked with industrial giants like Edison and Westinghouse.

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was a Serbian born inventor who grew up in an area of the Austro-Hungarian Empire that is the modern-day country of Croatia. In 1884 Tesla moved to United States to work for Thomas Edison. In 1888 Tesla presented to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers his polyphase alternating current system in the report “A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers.”

Tesla is more well known in the United States, having spent most of his adult life in the US. Having worked for Edison and Westinghouse, Tesla has become a cult hero.

Who did it first?

Some sources name Galileo Ferraris as the inventor of induction motors based on his research of the rotary magnetic field started in 1885. In March 1888, Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin, Italy.

Some sources name Nikola Tesla as the inventor of induction motors based on his filling of US patent 381968, granted on May 1, 1888.

By virtue of the many Nikola Tesla fans that frequent various Cult of Tesla websites, they may say that Nikola Tesla should be considered more important than Galileo Ferraris, even though the claim to the invention of induction motor should be a shared honor.

Tags: 

Did Nikola Tesla or Galileo Ferraris invent induction motors

GeekHistory II -

Many sources say the discoveries and inventions of Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris regarding the invention of induction motor were made entirely independently of each other.

When George Westinghouse and his team of engineers were designing their AC power distribution system, Westinghouse saw the invention of induction motor as a critical part of his final design.

Westinghouse saw Tesla's ideas as something he could use in his quest to develop AC, and purchased Tesla's alternating current patents. Not taking any chances as to who did it first, Westinghouse also purchased a U.S. patent option on induction motors from Galileo Ferraris.

Galileo Ferraris (1847-1897) was an Italian physicist and electrical engineer known for introducing the concept of the rotating magnetic field, and the invention of the rotating magnetic field asynchronous motor. Ferraris was involved in early experiments in AC power distance transmission which occurred in Germany and Italy in the early 1880s.

Galileo Ferraris is little known in the United States, having spent his entire life in Italy, and never worked with industrial giants like Edison and Westinghouse.

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was a Serbian born inventor who grew up in an area of the Austro-Hungarian Empire that is the modern-day country of Croatia. In 1884 Tesla moved to United States to work for Thomas Edison. In 1888 Tesla presented to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers his polyphase alternating current system in the report “A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers.”

Tesla is more well known in the United States, having spent most of his adult life in the US. Having worked for Edison and Westinghouse, Tesla has become a cult hero.

Who did it first?

Some sources name Galileo Ferraris as the inventor of induction motors based on his research of the rotary magnetic field started in 1885. In March 1888, Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin, Italy.

Some sources name Nikola Tesla as the inventor of induction motors based on his filling of US patent 381968, granted on May 1, 1888.

By virtue of the many Nikola Tesla fans that frequent various Cult of Tesla websites, they may say that Nikola Tesla should be considered more important than Galileo Ferraris, even though the claim to the invention of induction motor should be a shared honor.

Tags: 

Sad to see George Westinghouse disrespected by Nikola Tesla fans

GeekHistory II -

As we explore the mythical rivalry between Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla the misinformation is not just confined to Tesla's relationship with Edison. We have seen numerous comments on the internet with phrases such as "Tesla got screwed by Westinghouse." It's really a shame the legacy of George Westinghouse is not only getting forgotten, but is being disrespected by clueless Nikola Tesla fanatics .

George Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla both believed in the future of AC (alternating current) as the key to delivering electricity to our home.

George Westinghouse believed in Nikola Tesla, when Edison didn't.

Westinghouse was in a race to be the first company to commercially develop AC power, and George Westinghouse saw that Nikola Tesla's U.S. patents for his AC induction motor and related transformer design were the quickest way to make the final push to win the War of Currents. Westinghouse gave Tesla $60,000 in an initial lump sum for his ideas (that's worth roughly $1.4 million in today’s dollars.) Tesla was given a $2000 a month salary to work for Westinghouse, (the equivalent of $48,000 per month today.)

Many stories say that Tesla saved Westinghouse Electric, but that is only part of the story. Westinghouse paid Tesla a $216,000 lump sum for the right to use his AC patents, (worth roughly $5.4 in today’s dollars).

Tesla became a famous man because of his work with Westinghouse. When Tesla walked away from his partnership with Westinghouse, he had built up a nice nest egg. The relative value of money Tesla received from Westinghouse in the 1890s in current purchasing power is over several million dollars. Tesla used the money he made from Westinghouse to set up his own labs.

Nikola Tesla respected George Westinghouse

When George Westinghouse died in 1914, here are a few of the words from Tesla about Westinghouse as they appeared March 21, 1914 in Electrical world.

"His was a wonderful career filled with remarkable achievements. He gave to the world a number of valuable inventions and improvements, created new industries, advanced the mechanical and electrical arts and improved in many ways the conditions of modem life. He was a great pioneer and builder whose work was of far reaching effect on his time and whose name will live long in the memory of men."

Various accounts claim different reasons for the Westinghouse Corporation coming to Tesla's rescue later in his life. Tesla would move to the Hotel New Yorker in 1934, with the room paid for by the Westinghouse Corporation. One story is that Tesla was hit by a taxi on the streets of New York and injured, Westinghouse executives agreed to pay his room and board for the remainder of his life.

We can argue over the myths and legends surrounding the legendary lunatic Thomas Edison, but please don't disgrace George Westinghouse in the name of Nikola Tesla. The more I have studied Nikola Tesla, the more I have come to admire and respect George Westinghouse. He truly is the most forgotten geek.

Learn More:

Why is the world so damn obsessed with geek folk hero Nikola Tesla

Reflections on the most forgotten geek George Westinghouse

 

Tags: 

Sad to see George Westinghouse disrespected by Nikola Tesla fans

GeekHistory II -

As we explore the mythical rivalry between Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla the misinformation is not just confined to Tesla's relationship with Edison. We have seen numerous comments on the internet with phrases such as "Tesla got screwed by Westinghouse." It's really a shame the legacy of George Westinghouse is not only getting forgotten, but is being disrespected by clueless Nikola Tesla fanatics .

George Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla both believed in the future of AC (alternating current) as the key to delivering electricity to our home.

George Westinghouse believed in Nikola Tesla, when Edison didn't.

Westinghouse was in a race to be the first company to commercially develop AC power, and George Westinghouse saw that Nikola Tesla's U.S. patents for his AC induction motor and related transformer design were the quickest way to make the final push to win the War of Currents. Westinghouse gave Tesla $60,000 in an initial lump sum for his ideas (that's worth roughly $1.4 million in today’s dollars.) Tesla was given a $2000 a month salary to work for Westinghouse, (the equivalent of $48,000 per month today.)

Many stories say that Tesla saved Westinghouse Electric, but that is only part of the story. Westinghouse paid Tesla a $216,000 lump sum for the right to use his AC patents, (worth roughly $5.4 in today’s dollars).

Tesla became a famous man because of his work with Westinghouse. When Tesla walked away from his partnership with Westinghouse, he had built up a nice nest egg. The relative value of money Tesla received from Westinghouse in the 1890s in current purchasing power is over several million dollars. Tesla used the money he made from Westinghouse to set up his own labs.

Nikola Tesla respected George Westinghouse

When George Westinghouse died in 1914, here are a few of the words from Tesla about Westinghouse as they appeared March 21, 1914 in Electrical world.

"His was a wonderful career filled with remarkable achievements. He gave to the world a number of valuable inventions and improvements, created new industries, advanced the mechanical and electrical arts and improved in many ways the conditions of modem life. He was a great pioneer and builder whose work was of far reaching effect on his time and whose name will live long in the memory of men."

Various accounts claim different reasons for the Westinghouse Corporation coming to Tesla's rescue later in his life. Tesla would move to the Hotel New Yorker in 1934, with the room paid for by the Westinghouse Corporation. One story is that Tesla was hit by a taxi on the streets of New York and injured, Westinghouse executives agreed to pay his room and board for the remainder of his life.

We can argue over the myths and legends surrounding the legendary lunatic Thomas Edison, but please don't disgrace George Westinghouse in the name of Nikola Tesla. The more I have studied Nikola Tesla, the more I have come to admire and respect George Westinghouse. He truly is the most forgotten geek.

Learn More:

Why is the world so damn obsessed with geek folk hero Nikola Tesla

Reflections on the most forgotten geek George Westinghouse

 

Tags: 

A timeline illustrating the evolution of the use of electricity

GeekHistory II -

This timeline illustrating the evolution of the use of electricity clearly illustrates that the development of AC power was the work of many people long before the "War of Currents" between Nikola Tesla, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison.

1600 William Gilbert first scientists to document the concept of electricity in his book “De Magnete.”

1675 Robert William Boyle published "Experiments and Notes about the Mechanical Origine or Production of Electricity."

1799 Alessandro Volta invented the first battery known as the Voltaic Pile.

1821 Michael Faraday demonstrated the first simple electric motor.

1832 Hippolyte Pixii builds an early form of alternating current electrical generator based on Faraday's work.

1855 James Clerk Maxwell introduced his mathematical conceptualization of electromagnetic phenomena to the Cambridge Philosophical Society.

1878 Pavel Yablochkov introduced his lighting system to the world installing 64 of his arc lights along a half mile length of streets.

1878 The ZBD Transformer, created by Károly Zipernowsky, Ottó Bláthy, and Miksa Déri of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, used in both experimental, and commercial systems.

1881 Power transformer developed by Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs demonstrated in London.

1882 Thomas Edison launched the modern electric utility industry with the creation of the Pearl Street station in lower Manhattan using DC (Direct Current).

1886 Westinghouse Electric Company was started, Westinghouse purchased the American rights to Gaulard and Gibbs patents for AC current transformers.

1886 William Stanley created the first full feature AC power distribution system using transformers in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, a project funded by Westinghouse.

1888 Nikola Tesla presents to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers his polyphase alternating current system in the report “A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers.”

1888 George Westinghouse hires Nikola Tesla as a consultant at the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company's Pittsburgh labs. Westinghouse purchases patent options on induction motors from both Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris.

1893 Westinghouse Electric under bid Edison General Electric to get the contract to light the World's Columbian Exposition. Westinghouse exhibit at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago introduces world to AC power distribution.

Learn more about the many inventors and engineers that could be added to this timeline from the other pages in In this section of the GeekHistory almanac as we explore the history of electricity in homes from the discovery of electricity through the War of Currents.

Graphic: Long before television Michael Faraday nineteenth century scientist and electricity pioneer took science to the people as illustrated here delivering the British Royal Institution's Christmas Lecture for Juveniles during the Institution's Christmas break in 1856.

Tags: 

A timeline illustrating the evolution of the use of electricity

GeekHistory II -

This timeline illustrating the evolution of the use of electricity clearly illustrates that the development of AC power was the work of many people long before the "War of Currents" between Nikola Tesla, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison.

1600 William Gilbert first scientists to document the concept of electricity in his book “De Magnete.”

1675 Robert William Boyle published "Experiments and Notes about the Mechanical Origine or Production of Electricity."

1799 Alessandro Volta invented the first battery known as the Voltaic Pile.

1821 Michael Faraday demonstrated the first simple electric motor.

1832 Hippolyte Pixii builds an early form of alternating current electrical generator based on Faraday's work.

1855 James Clerk Maxwell introduced his mathematical conceptualization of electromagnetic phenomena to the Cambridge Philosophical Society.

1878 Pavel Yablochkov introduced his lighting system to the world installing 64 of his arc lights along a half mile length of streets.

1878 The ZBD Transformer, created by Károly Zipernowsky, Ottó Bláthy, and Miksa Déri of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, used in both experimental, and commercial systems.

1881 Power transformer developed by Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs demonstrated in London.

1882 Thomas Edison launched the modern electric utility industry with the creation of the Pearl Street station in lower Manhattan using DC (Direct Current).

1886 Westinghouse Electric Company was started, Westinghouse purchased the American rights to Gaulard and Gibbs patents for AC current transformers.

1886 William Stanley created the first full feature AC power distribution system using transformers in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, a project funded by Westinghouse.

1888 Nikola Tesla presents to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers his polyphase alternating current system in the report “A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers.”

1888 George Westinghouse hires Nikola Tesla as a consultant at the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company's Pittsburgh labs. Westinghouse purchases patent options on induction motors from both Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris.

1893 Westinghouse Electric under bid Edison General Electric to get the contract to light the World's Columbian Exposition. Westinghouse exhibit at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago introduces world to AC power distribution.

Learn more about the many inventors and engineers that could be added to this timeline from the other pages in In this section of the GeekHistory almanac as we explore the history of electricity in homes from the discovery of electricity through the War of Currents.

Graphic: Long before television Michael Faraday nineteenth century scientist and electricity pioneer took science to the people as illustrated here delivering the British Royal Institution's Christmas Lecture for Juveniles during the Institution's Christmas break in 1856.

Tags: 

Explain the difference between deep web and dark web in simple terms

The Guru 42 Universe -

When I explain technology concepts I strive for using simple terms. I saw the question asked, "Can you explain deep web and dark web to me like I am a five year old?"

I just shook my head as I read many of the answers, I know a five year old is not going to understand them. I make those comments sincerely, with the first hand experience of spending time with my five year old grand daughter on a regular basis.

Most answers started out explaining that the surface web was the part of the internet indexed by Google. My granddaughter is pretty smart, but she no concept of what "indexed by Google" means. So here is my attempt to explain deep web and dark web to a five year old.

As I tell this story I can actually picture taking my grand daughter to the downtown area of the city where I work. First we would go to the library. I would show her around the library. Look at the people reading books, working on the computers. Isn't that cool, all the people moving around the library, learning new things! For our story we can call the public library the surface web.

Right next door to the library is an office building, let's go in there and look around. In the lobby of the building there is a common area where we can walk around freely and access various bits of information. On the wall there is a sign that tells me the names of all the people who have offices in the building on the floors above the lobby. We can see who these people are, but we really can't just walk around their offices to see what they do. In order to look inside these offices we need a reason to get into these rooms. These offices might be doctors treating people, or people talking about different business things that aren't things that are shared with the public. For our story we can call this office building the deep web.

Across the street from the office building is a large building with no name on it, so I am not sure what is inside the building. There isn't a lobby we can look around in to see who works there. From watching the people going into the building it looks like they have a special badge to get inside of the building, so it's not something we can go inside of to look around. For our story we can call this mysterious building the dark web.

I am sure there would be some question as to why the mysterious building did not want people to know what they are doing inside. I could expand the analogy further to explain the difference between public spaces like your school or library and private spaces like your home.

Learn more:

Dig deeper and learn more. The dark web need not mean some mysterious place of evil, it is simply a term describing an area of controlled access rather than free and open access.

Guru42 explores: Dark Net? Deep Web? What can I find there?

Guru42 explains: Beware of credit bureaus offering free dark web scans

Tags: 

Explain the difference between deep web and dark web in simple terms

The Guru 42 Universe -

When I explain technology concepts I strive for using simple terms. I saw the question asked, "Can you explain deep web and dark web to me like I am a five year old?"

I just shook my head as I read many of the answers, I know a five year old is not going to understand them. I make those comments sincerely, with the first hand experience of spending time with my five year old grand daughter on a regular basis.

Most answers started out explaining that the surface web was the part of the internet indexed by Google. My granddaughter is pretty smart, but she no concept of what "indexed by Google" means. So here is my attempt to explain deep web and dark web to a five year old.

As I tell this story I can actually picture taking my grand daughter to the downtown area of the city where I work. First we would go to the library. I would show her around the library. Look at the people reading books, working on the computers. Isn't that cool, all the people moving around the library, learning new things! For our story we can call the public library the surface web.

Right next door to the library is an office building, let's go in there and look around. In the lobby of the building there is a common area where we can walk around freely and access various bits of information. On the wall there is a sign that tells me the names of all the people who have offices in the building on the floors above the lobby. We can see who these people are, but we really can't just walk around their offices to see what they do. In order to look inside these offices we need a reason to get into these rooms. These offices might be doctors treating people, or people talking about different business things that aren't things that are shared with the public. For our story we can call this office building the deep web.

Across the street from the office building is a large building with no name on it, so I am not sure what is inside the building. There isn't a lobby we can look around in to see who works there. From watching the people going into the building it looks like they have a special badge to get inside of the building, so it's not something we can go inside of to look around. For our story we can call this mysterious building the dark web.

I am sure there would be some question as to why the mysterious building did not want people to know what they are doing inside. I could expand the analogy further to explain the difference between public spaces like your school or library and private spaces like your home.

Learn more:

Dig deeper and learn more. The dark web need not mean some mysterious place of evil, it is simply a term describing an area of controlled access rather than free and open access.

Guru42 explores: Dark Net? Deep Web? What can I find there?

Guru42 explains: Beware of credit bureaus offering free dark web scans

Tags: 

What frightens you more: the dark web or credit bureaus

Guru 42 Blog -

A television commercial offers to find if your personal information is on the dark web.

The first time I saw that Experian commercial, I immediately said, "Well that's really stupid!" (Maybe I added a few colorful adjectives as well to my shouted out remarks.)

Are You Afraid of the Dark?

Experian is preying on the fear of the dark web to sell their services. Let's just assume for the sake of this question that everything that is sold on the "dark web" is less than legal. (That's what Experian is implying.) Why would Experian have any special access to less than legal information, more so than anyone else? Does that make sense?

If Experian did have some sophisticated way of searching the dark web and finding less than legal databases of information, wouldn't they have a legal obligation to report their findings to the police or other government agencies, rather than offering this information as a service?

What information?

For the sake of this question, let's address the basic question of "what is the danger if your information is on the dark web?”

We all should be worried about all of our information on the deep web, just above "the evils" of the dark web.

Do a search on your name, does it bother you that your current address, age, employer, and contact information is so readily available on the public web? Does it bother you that there are so many websites on the internet, that are offering to sell you information about people?

If a hacker had downloaded an entire database of information illegally, why would they have the contents stored where someone could access it? (As Experian is implying.) Unless you are someone rich and famous where one single bit of information could be used to blackmail an individual, if a hacker steals a database, they are going to sell the entire database.

And you would trust Experian?

It is pretty ironic that Experian, the company who had their servers hacked exposing the personal data of 15 million T-Mobile customers wants to help me find identity thieves on the dark web.

Lessons from the Experian hack: Lessons from the Experian hack

Experian Faces Class Action Over T-Mobile Data Breach: Experian Faces Class Action Over T-Mobile Data Breach - Cohen & Malad, LLP

Experian wants you to be afraid, very afraid of the dark. In exchange for their services, they are asking you to sell your soul to them. In order for you to have Experian check the darkness in your name, you are agreeing to Experian's terms of service:

"... Experian's terms of service and found a densely written, nearly 17,600-word document — a contract the length of a novella.

Not surprisingly, this is where you'll find an arbitration clause preventing you from suing the company — an increasingly common aspect of consumer contracts nowadays. That's the least of your worries, though.

It turns out running a free dark-Web email scan opens you up to "advertisements or offers for available credit cards, loan options, financial products or services, or credit-related products or services and other offers to customers."

Reference: Credit agency Experian says it can protect you from the 'dark Web' — sort of

Are You Afraid of Credit Bureaus?

Their commercial infuriates me. It preys upon fear and ignorance. I am much more afraid of what damage a credit bureau could do to my life than any information you could find about me on the dark web.

Let me conclude this answer with another question. What frightens you more, the thought of finding your information on the dark web or credit bureaus like Experian having the right to sell your information as they do?


In case you are curious:

Wondering about the dark web and the forbidden fruit of the internet

Buzzwords from the world wide web to deep web and dark net

 

Tags: 

What frightens you more: the dark web or credit bureaus

Guru 42 Blog -

A television commercial offers to find if your personal information is on the dark web.

The first time I saw that Experian commercial, I immediately said, "Well that's really stupid!" (Maybe I added a few colorful adjectives as well to my shouted out remarks.)

Are You Afraid of the Dark?

Experian is preying on the fear of the dark web to sell their services. Let's just assume for the sake of this question that everything that is sold on the "dark web" is less than legal. (That's what Experian is implying.) Why would Experian have any special access to less than legal information, more so than anyone else? Does that make sense?

If Experian did have some sophisticated way of searching the dark web and finding less than legal databases of information, wouldn't they have a legal obligation to report their findings to the police or other government agencies, rather than offering this information as a service?

What information?

For the sake of this question, let's address the basic question of "what is the danger if your information is on the dark web?”

We all should be worried about all of our information on the deep web, just above "the evils" of the dark web.

Do a search on your name, does it bother you that your current address, age, employer, and contact information is so readily available on the public web? Does it bother you that there are so many websites on the internet, that are offering to sell you information about people?

If a hacker had downloaded an entire database of information illegally, why would they have the contents stored where someone could access it? (As Experian is implying.) Unless you are someone rich and famous where one single bit of information could be used to blackmail an individual, if a hacker steals a database, they are going to sell the entire database.

And you would trust Experian?

It is pretty ironic that Experian, the company who had their servers hacked exposing the personal data of 15 million T-Mobile customers wants to help me find identity thieves on the dark web.

Lessons from the Experian hack: Lessons from the Experian hack

Experian Faces Class Action Over T-Mobile Data Breach: Experian Faces Class Action Over T-Mobile Data Breach - Cohen & Malad, LLP

Experian wants you to be afraid, very afraid of the dark. In exchange for their services, they are asking you to sell your soul to them. In order for you to have Experian check the darkness in your name, you are agreeing to Experian's terms of service:

"... Experian's terms of service and found a densely written, nearly 17,600-word document — a contract the length of a novella.

Not surprisingly, this is where you'll find an arbitration clause preventing you from suing the company — an increasingly common aspect of consumer contracts nowadays. That's the least of your worries, though.

It turns out running a free dark-Web email scan opens you up to "advertisements or offers for available credit cards, loan options, financial products or services, or credit-related products or services and other offers to customers."

Reference: Credit agency Experian says it can protect you from the 'dark Web' — sort of

Are You Afraid of Credit Bureaus?

Their commercial infuriates me. It preys upon fear and ignorance. I am much more afraid of what damage a credit bureau could do to my life than any information you could find about me on the dark web.

Let me conclude this answer with another question. What frightens you more, the thought of finding your information on the dark web or credit bureaus like Experian having the right to sell your information as they do?


In case you are curious:

Wondering about the dark web and the forbidden fruit of the internet

Buzzwords from the world wide web to deep web and dark net

 

Tags: 

Who invented the Telephone?

Geek History -

The history books pick and choose "who invented it" based on who won a specific patent battle.

When asked who invented the telephone the name Alexander Graham Bell is often offered as the correct answer. Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone first, the U.S. Patent Office awarded Alexander Bell, United States Patent No. 174,465 in 1876.

Who invented the Telephone?

An argument could be made for the answer to who invented the telephone could be Alexander Graham Bell, Elisha Gray, or Antonio Meucci. In the 1870s all three of these individuals worked on the technology to transmit speech electrically that would become our telephone system.

In the "who invented it" mythology everyone is looking for that one "eureka" moment when something appears out of thin air, a totally new idea. In the real world of technology, inventions are part of an evolution of ideas.

Early development of the telegraph and telephone

The telephone was an extension of the work done by Samuel Morse in developing the telegraph in the 1830s. Samuel Morse independently developed and patented a recording electric telegraph in 1837. The first telegram in the United States was sent by Morse January 1838, across two miles of wire at near Morristown, New Jersey.

History books tell us Samuel Morse invented the telegraph based on a 1837 patent, but another inventor, Dr. David Alter, invented his own version of the telegraph in 1836.


According to his biography from the book American Medical Biographies by Howard Kelly and Walter Burrage, 1920, Dr. David Alter "perfected an electric telegraph in 1836 which consisted of seven wires, the electricity deflecting a needle on a disc at the extremity of each wire."

Some sources state that Alter also invented a "speaking telegraph, " a forerunner of the modern telephone system. The little known inventor from Western Pennsylvania was also a pioneer in "the discovery of the principles underlying spectrum analysis."

Early development of the Reis telephone

In 1861, German scientist and inventor Johann Philipp Reis succeeded in creating a device that captured sound, converted it to electrical impulses which were transmitted via electrical wires to another device that transformed these pulses into recognizable sounds similar to the original acoustical source. Reis coined the term telephone to describe his device

Would you believe Antonio Meucci invented the telephone?

Many people would argue that Antonio Meucci invented the telephone. Antonio Meucci worked in developing electromagnetic voice transmission, and is recognized as a early pioneer of telephone on the the Library of Congress website.

Quoting from the Library of Congress website:

" Of course, Alexander Graham Bell is the father of the telephone. After all it was his design that was first patented, however, he was not the first inventor to come up with the idea of a telephone.

Antonio Meucci, an Italian immigrant, began developing the design of a talking telegraph or telephone in 1849."


In 2002 the United States Congress passed resolution HRes 269 EH acknowledging the contributions of Antonio Meucci for his work in the telephone's development, stating: "That it is the sense of the House of Representatives that the life and achievements of Antonio Meucci should be recognized, and his work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged".

The Antonio Meucci conspiracy theory

Although the Library of Congress website states that Meucci began developing the design of a telephone in 1849, it was many years later, December 1871, that Meucci filed a patent caveat, not a patent, for a telephone device with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent caveats according to law were "a description of an invention, intended to be patented, lodged in the patent office before the patent was applied for, and operated as a bar to the issue of any patent to any other person regarding the same invention." Caveats lasted one year and were renewable.

Patent caveats were much less costly than a full patent application and required a less detailed description of the invention. If within the year another inventor filed a patent application for a similar invention, the Patent Office notified the holder of the caveat, who then had three months to submit a formal application. Antonio Meucci did not renew his caveat after 1874 and Alexander Graham Bell was granted a patent in March of 1876.

According to some theories, Antonio Meucci did not know English well enough to navigate the complex American business community, and was unable to raise sufficient funds to pay his way through the patent application process. Other stories claim that Meucci was told that the Western Union affiliate laboratory reportedly lost his working models. Interesting, Alexander Graham Bell, conducted experiments in the same laboratory where Meucci's materials had been stored.

It should be pointed out that a caveat does not guarantee that a patent will be granted, or what the scope of that patent will be. Antonio Meucci understood how the patent system worked, he was granted fourteen patents for other inventions. There are unanswered questions as to why Meucci did not file a patent application for his telephone, when patents were granted to him in 1872, 1873, 1875, and 1876.

Patent wars Elisha Gray versus Alexander Graham Bell

In the 1870s, two inventors, Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell, both independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically. Alexander Graham Bell's lawyer filed his patent application for the telephone in the U.S. patent office in Washington, D.C. on February 14, 1876. Elisha Gray's lawyer filed Gray's patent caveat the same day.

The phenomenon known as "multiple discovery" is when notable inventions have occurred simultaneously and independently among different inventors. It happens often as similar work is being done at the same time independently of each other because the evolution of technology that leads to the invention is going on all over. Was the patent office filings of both inventors on the same day the result of multiple discovery, or some other less than ethical action?

There is no shortage of conspiracy suggesting that Bell had illegally acquired knowledge of Gray's invention. Gray and Bell entered into a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which Bell won.

Everyone knows the name Alexander Graham Bell because Bell Telephone is the company people associate with the evolution of the telephone.

In 1872, Elisha Gray founded the Western Electric Manufacturing Company, a company that would eventually evolve into Lucent Technologies. How many people know the name Elisha Gray?

The question of who invented the telephone may seem simple, but like so many modern devices in the history of technology, the story behind "who invented it" is very interesting because none of these "inventions" were the work of one man.

Main photograph (top): History books tell us Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone
but fail to mention Antonio Meucci (left) or Elisha Gray (right).

Smaller photograph: The little known inventor from Western Pennsylvania Dr. David Alter

Who invented the Telephone?

Geek History -

The history books pick and choose "who invented it" based on who won a specific patent battle.

When asked who invented the telephone the name Alexander Graham Bell is often offered as the correct answer. Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone first, the U.S. Patent Office awarded Alexander Bell, United States Patent No. 174,465 in 1876.

Who invented the Telephone?

An argument could be made for the answer to who invented the telephone could be Alexander Graham Bell, Elisha Gray, or Antonio Meucci. In the 1870s all three of these individuals worked on the technology to transmit speech electrically that would become our telephone system.

In the "who invented it" mythology everyone is looking for that one "eureka" moment when something appears out of thin air, a totally new idea. In the real world of technology, inventions are part of an evolution of ideas.

Early development of the telegraph and telephone

The telephone was an extension of the work done by Samuel Morse in developing the telegraph in the 1830s. Samuel Morse independently developed and patented a recording electric telegraph in 1837. The first telegram in the United States was sent by Morse January 1838, across two miles of wire at near Morristown, New Jersey.

History books tell us Samuel Morse invented the telegraph based on a 1837 patent, but another inventor, Dr. David Alter, invented his own version of the telegraph in 1836.


According to his biography from the book American Medical Biographies by Howard Kelly and Walter Burrage, 1920, Dr. David Alter "perfected an electric telegraph in 1836 which consisted of seven wires, the electricity deflecting a needle on a disc at the extremity of each wire."

Some sources state that Alter also invented a "speaking telegraph, " a forerunner of the modern telephone system. The little known inventor from Western Pennsylvania was also a pioneer in "the discovery of the principles underlying spectrum analysis."

Early development of the Reis telephone

In 1861, German scientist and inventor Johann Philipp Reis succeeded in creating a device that captured sound, converted it to electrical impulses which were transmitted via electrical wires to another device that transformed these pulses into recognizable sounds similar to the original acoustical source. Reis coined the term telephone to describe his device

Would you believe Antonio Meucci invented the telephone?

Many people would argue that Antonio Meucci invented the telephone. Antonio Meucci worked in developing electromagnetic voice transmission, and is recognized as a early pioneer of telephone on the the Library of Congress website.

Quoting from the Library of Congress website:

" Of course, Alexander Graham Bell is the father of the telephone. After all it was his design that was first patented, however, he was not the first inventor to come up with the idea of a telephone.

Antonio Meucci, an Italian immigrant, began developing the design of a talking telegraph or telephone in 1849."


In 2002 the United States Congress passed resolution HRes 269 EH acknowledging the contributions of Antonio Meucci for his work in the telephone's development, stating: "That it is the sense of the House of Representatives that the life and achievements of Antonio Meucci should be recognized, and his work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged".

The Antonio Meucci conspiracy theory

Although the Library of Congress website states that Meucci began developing the design of a telephone in 1849, it was many years later, December 1871, that Meucci filed a patent caveat, not a patent, for a telephone device with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent caveats according to law were "a description of an invention, intended to be patented, lodged in the patent office before the patent was applied for, and operated as a bar to the issue of any patent to any other person regarding the same invention." Caveats lasted one year and were renewable.

Patent caveats were much less costly than a full patent application and required a less detailed description of the invention. If within the year another inventor filed a patent application for a similar invention, the Patent Office notified the holder of the caveat, who then had three months to submit a formal application. Antonio Meucci did not renew his caveat after 1874 and Alexander Graham Bell was granted a patent in March of 1876.

According to some theories, Antonio Meucci did not know English well enough to navigate the complex American business community, and was unable to raise sufficient funds to pay his way through the patent application process. Other stories claim that Meucci was told that the Western Union affiliate laboratory reportedly lost his working models. Interesting, Alexander Graham Bell, conducted experiments in the same laboratory where Meucci's materials had been stored.

It should be pointed out that a caveat does not guarantee that a patent will be granted, or what the scope of that patent will be. Antonio Meucci understood how the patent system worked, he was granted fourteen patents for other inventions. There are unanswered questions as to why Meucci did not file a patent application for his telephone, when patents were granted to him in 1872, 1873, 1875, and 1876.

Patent wars Elisha Gray versus Alexander Graham Bell

In the 1870s, two inventors, Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell, both independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically. Alexander Graham Bell's lawyer filed his patent application for the telephone in the U.S. patent office in Washington, D.C. on February 14, 1876. Elisha Gray's lawyer filed Gray's patent caveat the same day.

The phenomenon known as "multiple discovery" is when notable inventions have occurred simultaneously and independently among different inventors. It happens often as similar work is being done at the same time independently of each other because the evolution of technology that leads to the invention is going on all over. Was the patent office filings of both inventors on the same day the result of multiple discovery, or some other less than ethical action?

There is no shortage of conspiracy suggesting that Bell had illegally acquired knowledge of Gray's invention. Gray and Bell entered into a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which Bell won.

Everyone knows the name Alexander Graham Bell because Bell Telephone is the company people associate with the evolution of the telephone.

In 1872, Elisha Gray founded the Western Electric Manufacturing Company, a company that would eventually evolve into Lucent Technologies. How many people know the name Elisha Gray?

The question of who invented the telephone may seem simple, but like so many modern devices in the history of technology, the story behind "who invented it" is very interesting because none of these "inventions" were the work of one man.

Main photograph (top): History books tell us Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone
but fail to mention Antonio Meucci (left) or Elisha Gray (right).

Smaller photograph: The little known inventor from Western Pennsylvania Dr. David Alter

Is OpenNIC a reliable DNS service?

ComputerGuru -

I was asked the question, "Is OpenNIC a reliable DNS service?" As a systems administrator on a private network, being able to create and customize a DNS server adds some management features that would not apply to the average home based web surfer.

This question was asked with the reason for using OpenNIC is to add an extra layer of privacy to your web browsing. The belief, or perhaps paranoia, is that DNS servers are able to log your requests, and by doing so they have a record of sites you have visited. The question is asked in the context that your DNS provided by your ISP is a source to track where you have been on the internet, and by using an alternative DNS service that eliminates that extra potential layer of tracking, thereby creating more privacy.

If you want to start playing around with alternative DNS solutions you need to understand the risks as well as the benefits.

First let's take a quick look at the definition of DNS (Domain Naming Service)

  • DNS is a distributed database of Domain Names and their corresponding IP Addresses.
  • DNS makes it possible to attach hard to remember IP addresses to easy to remember domain names
  • DNS translates between meaningful host names and IP addresses. It is a hierarchical naming system used to give each server on the Internet a unique name.
  • DNS keeps a complete listing of all FQDNs (Fully qualified domain names) and their associated IP address.

What is OpenNIC?

OpenNIC, an open source DNS provider, an organization of hobbyists who run an alternative DNS network.

Is OpenNIC a reliable DNS service?

A quick look at some data found in the links below tell me that OpenNIC, an open source DNS provider, does not appear to be as efficient as other DNS providers.

Comparing the performance of popular public DNS providers -|- Recommended Public DNS Servers

Based on the data in those two articles, and my personal experiences with open source, I would ask, why bother to use OpenNIC?

I have volunteered my time and have been an advocate of open source solutions for more than 20 years. I am happy to use and test open source solutions if I see a benefit in using them. If I felt the need to pursue an alternative DNS solution I would do more research, but based on what I see here, I just don't see a compelling reason to jump on the OpenNIC bandwagon.


The importance of DNS

As an IT professional I have often used the analogy that talking to business managers about maintaining a computer network is like talking about the plumbing. Many cost cutting managers see technology infrastructure as an expense to be reduced, rather than a resource to be managed. The need to replace the pipes is not something that gets discussed. That is, until the morning when there is no water coming from the pipes, and no one can flush the toilets, then it becomes mission critical.

Computer network services such as DNS are like the plumbing below the surface, as long as it is running and everything is working, no one gives it much thought. That is until you type in the name of a website into your browser, and you get the message: dns_unresolved_hostname The requested site could not be found in DNS.

This article puts DNS into perspective: Plan to transition Internet management sparks censorship fears

Quoting from that article:  *"The importance of DNS cannot be overstated. It is the Internet’s phonebook, connecting bizarre-looking IP addresses to the domain names with which all Internet users are familiar. When someone types **Google* (http://google.com)* into their browser, their request goes through a DNS server, which understands that the user is looking for one of Google‘s many servers, including 195.122.30.25. If that routing information were compromised or corrupted, whether intentionally or accidentally, it could severely disrupt the basic flow of traffic over the Web."*

Digging deeper with DNS

Sounds simple on the surface, but when you look at DNS as a tool to deceive and mis-direct people, it gets a little deeper.

Over the years I've written quite a bit about internet laws and proposed legislation. In 2011 the world was up in arms about PIPA (Preventing Real Online Threats to Economic Creativity and Theft of Intellectual Property Act.) The well meaning and good intentions of the US Congress was to shut down rogue websites and reduce the sale of counterfeit goods.

One of the provisions of the proposed law PIPA was allowing the government to remove rogue websites from the Domain Name System (DNS). Of course the internet purists were screaming about too much government control of the internet. (Ironically these same groups are now screaming for more government control of the internet with net neutrality regulations.)

Digging through some old notes I found this article explaining PIPA:  DNS filtering: absolutely the wrong way to defend copyrights

I have digressed a bit from the context of the original question, but I wanted to try to explain why the question might matter to someone beyond the simple answer, and why changing your DNS server is not something to be taken lightly.
 

Tags: 

Is OpenNIC a reliable DNS service?

ComputerGuru -

I was asked the question, "Is OpenNIC a reliable DNS service?" As a systems administrator on a private network, being able to create and customize a DNS server adds some management features that would not apply to the average home based web surfer.

This question was asked with the reason for using OpenNIC is to add an extra layer of privacy to your web browsing. The belief, or perhaps paranoia, is that DNS servers are able to log your requests, and by doing so they have a record of sites you have visited. The question is asked in the context that your DNS provided by your ISP is a source to track where you have been on the internet, and by using an alternative DNS service that eliminates that extra potential layer of tracking, thereby creating more privacy.

If you want to start playing around with alternative DNS solutions you need to understand the risks as well as the benefits.

First let's take a quick look at the definition of DNS (Domain Naming Service)

  • DNS is a distributed database of Domain Names and their corresponding IP Addresses.
  • DNS makes it possible to attach hard to remember IP addresses to easy to remember domain names
  • DNS translates between meaningful host names and IP addresses. It is a hierarchical naming system used to give each server on the Internet a unique name.
  • DNS keeps a complete listing of all FQDNs (Fully qualified domain names) and their associated IP address.

What is OpenNIC?

OpenNIC, an open source DNS provider, an organization of hobbyists who run an alternative DNS network.

Is OpenNIC a reliable DNS service?

A quick look at some data found in the links below tell me that OpenNIC, an open source DNS provider, does not appear to be as efficient as other DNS providers.

Comparing the performance of popular public DNS providers -|- Recommended Public DNS Servers

Based on the data in those two articles, and my personal experiences with open source, I would ask, why bother to use OpenNIC?

I have volunteered my time and have been an advocate of open source solutions for more than 20 years. I am happy to use and test open source solutions if I see a benefit in using them. If I felt the need to pursue an alternative DNS solution I would do more research, but based on what I see here, I just don't see a compelling reason to jump on the OpenNIC bandwagon.


The importance of DNS

As an IT professional I have often used the analogy that talking to business managers about maintaining a computer network is like talking about the plumbing. Many cost cutting managers see technology infrastructure as an expense to be reduced, rather than a resource to be managed. The need to replace the pipes is not something that gets discussed. That is, until the morning when there is no water coming from the pipes, and no one can flush the toilets, then it becomes mission critical.

Computer network services such as DNS are like the plumbing below the surface, as long as it is running and everything is working, no one gives it much thought. That is until you type in the name of a website into your browser, and you get the message: dns_unresolved_hostname The requested site could not be found in DNS.

This article puts DNS into perspective: Plan to transition Internet management sparks censorship fears

Quoting from that article:  *"The importance of DNS cannot be overstated. It is the Internet’s phonebook, connecting bizarre-looking IP addresses to the domain names with which all Internet users are familiar. When someone types **Google* (http://google.com)* into their browser, their request goes through a DNS server, which understands that the user is looking for one of Google‘s many servers, including 195.122.30.25. If that routing information were compromised or corrupted, whether intentionally or accidentally, it could severely disrupt the basic flow of traffic over the Web."*

Digging deeper with DNS

Sounds simple on the surface, but when you look at DNS as a tool to deceive and mis-direct people, it gets a little deeper.

Over the years I've written quite a bit about internet laws and proposed legislation. In 2011 the world was up in arms about PIPA (Preventing Real Online Threats to Economic Creativity and Theft of Intellectual Property Act.) The well meaning and good intentions of the US Congress was to shut down rogue websites and reduce the sale of counterfeit goods.

One of the provisions of the proposed law PIPA was allowing the government to remove rogue websites from the Domain Name System (DNS). Of course the internet purists were screaming about too much government control of the internet. (Ironically these same groups are now screaming for more government control of the internet with net neutrality regulations.)

Digging through some old notes I found this article explaining PIPA:  DNS filtering: absolutely the wrong way to defend copyrights

I have digressed a bit from the context of the original question, but I wanted to try to explain why the question might matter to someone beyond the simple answer, and why changing your DNS server is not something to be taken lightly.
 

Tags: 

Home computer networks explained Wi-Fi and wireless access points

ComputerGuru -

Setting up your home network can get confusing as street slang dominates many forums and internet discussions.  Just about any plastic box with wires coming out of it is often called a modem or a router, in reality it may be neither.

Here at the Guru42 Universe we will do out best to sort through all the geek speak.  It is important to have a basic understanding of all the buzzwords when you are setting up your home computer network.  Depending on your Internet Service Provider and the service you are buying, the device they supply will vary and what you need to connect is not a one size fits all answer.

Your ISP (Internet Service Provider) may provide you with a "residential gateway" that allows you to connect to the internet. You then purchase an internet appliance that is often called a "wireless router" to attach it.  People get confused because many small technology appliances made for home use are actually several devices in one.  One of my pet peeves on is when people use the term "wireless router" to describe a variety of devices. Typically what most people call a wireless router is a combination of a router, a wireless access point, and a network switch.

Do I need a modem to access the Internet?

A modem is a MOdulator-DEModulator, as in a modulator which creates an analog signal such as the type needed in POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service), and a demodulator which converts the modulated carrier back to something that can be used in a digital circuit. Most modern communications use digital lines so the need to convert (MOdulate-DEModulate) is no longer necessary.

Often the word modem is used as a generic word for any device that connects your home network to an internet service providers network. Typically in modern home computing when someone uses the term modem they are talking about a  "residential gateway" provided to them by their ISP.

What confuses matters even more is that the device supplied by the ISP could be a multi-function technology appliance that contains a router, an Ethernet switch, and a WAP (wireless access point), and possibly other functions related to a home networks such as a firewall.

What is a wireless access point?

A Wireless Access Point (WAP) is a networking hardware device which, as the name describes, gives you wireless access to your LAN (local area network).  You have a wired connection, an ethernet 8P8C (8 position 8 contact) modular connectors port in your wall, that is wired access. You want to convert that to a wireless access point.

A Wireless Access Point has nothing to do with routing or switching.In a very small home network the WAP could be part of one appliance that has multiple features.  What many people call a router in their home may actually be a router, and a switch, and a wireless access point.

The terms "wireless access point" and "Wi-Fi" are not synonyms.

In online forums people often use the terms  "wireless access point"  and "Wi-Fi" to mean a hotspot, as in any type of public internet access.

A Wireless Access Point (WAP) is a device that offers, as the name suggests, wireless access to a wireless local area network (WLAN).  While cell phone technology is often discussed as a form of wireless networking, it is not the same as the wireless local area network (WLAN) technology discussed here.   In computer networking you would use the term Wireless Access Point (WAP) to identify the device being used, and the term Wi-Fi to identify the specific technology. rather than Wi-Fi access point.

Specifically the term "Wi-Fi" is a trademark of a trade association known as the Wi-Fi Alliance. The marketing company Interbrand, known for creating brand names, was hired to create a brand name to market the new technology, and the name Wi-Fi was chosen. The term "Wi-Fi" with the dash, is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance.

From a technical perspective WLAN technology is defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with networks carrying variable size packets, which makes it different from cell phone based networks,  802.11 is a subset of the family specific to WLAN technology. Victor "Vic" Hayes was the first chair of the IEEE 802.11 group which finalized the wireless standard in 1997.

How are wireless access points used?

In the business world Wireless Access Points (WAP) are fairly common. On a business network your desktop computers (workstations) are connected via wire, but you probably have several WAPs (Wireless Access Points) for your laptop users.

If you are a visitor to a business network you may notice WAPs set up for office staff as well as visitors. This is becoming very common. You see this in government locations, perhaps even where you get your car serviced you can take your notebook into a lounge where you can use a "guest network" to connect to the internet.

Let's say you have a large home, and it is wired for data, as in it has ethernet ports through out your home. You want to convert that to a wireless access point. It has nothing to do with routing or switching. In wireless communications the "media" is a type of radio wave that communicates from your wireless adapter to the Wireless Access Point.

If your home office is in the basement, and that is the location of your current connection device (router, switch, wireless access point) where everything plugs in.  On the second floor of your house you have an ethernet port in your bedroom, but you want to use a tablet to surf the web, or perhaps use some internet appliance with your bedroom television.  The signal from the wireless access point in your basement is too weak.  You don't need to purchase another device that is a router and switch and WAP, all you need is the WAP (wireless access point).  So you simply buy a device that is ONLY a WAP, and plug it into your ethernet connection.

What is a wireless adapter?

Comparing a wireless network to a wired one, in a wired network your computer workstation has a NIC (Network Interface Card) which in a typical Ethernet network has an 8P8C (Eight Position, Eight Contact) modular jack on it where the network cable plugs into your computer.  From your computer the other end of the network cable plugs into some other type of device such as a switch or router, where traffic on your network is managed and distributed. On a wireless network the wireless adapter takes the place of the NIC.

How do I use ad hoc on a wireless network?

Ad hoc networks refer to networks created for a particular purpose. They are often created on-the-fly and for one-time or temporary use. If you don’t have a crossover cable to connect two notebooks or netbooks you can use their wireless capabilities to exchange files between without the need for any other than the computer itself. Instead of configuring your wireless adapter to connect to a wireless access point or router, you configure your wireless adapter to connect to another computer.

In the wireless world an ad hoc network is the equivalent of a peer to peer network.  In very small home networks, you may have two or three computers where you share resources between them, and to do so you set up a "peer to peer" network. Much like peer to peer networks in the wired world, ad hoc networks have management and security issues beyond that of the typical infrastructure network.

If your computer never leaves your house, having it set up to share files with another computer in your home may not be an issue you have to worry about.  On the other hand, if you travel with your computer, having ad hoc set up on your portable computer could create issues. Wireless devices in ad hoc mode offer minimal security against unwanted incoming connections, and there is a large security risk in using an ad hoc connection to an unknown computer, as you are exposing your computer to file sharing with strangers.

In some cases computers in public are purposely set up to look for and connect to other computers in ad hoc mode in order to steal information from them.  When using your computer in public hotspots you typically will be looking for a Wireless Network Connection, and ignore an attempt to connect with a strange computer using an ad hoc connection.

Learn more

If you are not sure what is the best technology choice for you, and you need some ideas, or if you want to keep up to date on hot topics in technology, check out the Guru 42 small business and technology blog  where we share our views and comments on the technology news of the day.

 

Tags: 

Home computer networks explained Wi-Fi and wireless access points

ComputerGuru -

Setting up your home network can get confusing as street slang dominates many forums and internet discussions.  Just about any plastic box with wires coming out of it is often called a modem or a router, in reality it may be neither.

Here at the Guru42 Universe we will do out best to sort through all the geek speak.  It is important to have a basic understanding of all the buzzwords when you are setting up your home computer network.  Depending on your Internet Service Provider and the service you are buying, the device they supply will vary and what you need to connect is not a one size fits all answer.

Your ISP (Internet Service Provider) may provide you with a "residential gateway" that allows you to connect to the internet. You then purchase an internet appliance that is often called a "wireless router" to attach it.  People get confused because many small technology appliances made for home use are actually several devices in one.  One of my pet peeves on is when people use the term "wireless router" to describe a variety of devices. Typically what most people call a wireless router is a combination of a router, a wireless access point, and a network switch.

Do I need a modem to access the Internet?

A modem is a MOdulator-DEModulator, as in a modulator which creates an analog signal such as the type needed in POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service), and a demodulator which converts the modulated carrier back to something that can be used in a digital circuit. Most modern communications use digital lines so the need to convert (MOdulate-DEModulate) is no longer necessary.

Often the word modem is used as a generic word for any device that connects your home network to an internet service providers network. Typically in modern home computing when someone uses the term modem they are talking about a  "residential gateway" provided to them by their ISP.

What confuses matters even more is that the device supplied by the ISP could be a multi-function technology appliance that contains a router, an Ethernet switch, and a WAP (wireless access point), and possibly other functions related to a home networks such as a firewall.

What is a wireless access point?

A Wireless Access Point (WAP) is a networking hardware device which, as the name describes, gives you wireless access to your LAN (local area network).  You have a wired connection, an ethernet 8P8C (8 position 8 contact) modular connectors port in your wall, that is wired access. You want to convert that to a wireless access point.

A Wireless Access Point has nothing to do with routing or switching.In a very small home network the WAP could be part of one appliance that has multiple features.  What many people call a router in their home may actually be a router, and a switch, and a wireless access point.

The terms "wireless access point" and "Wi-Fi" are not synonyms.

In online forums people often use the terms  "wireless access point"  and "Wi-Fi" to mean a hotspot, as in any type of public internet access.

A Wireless Access Point (WAP) is a device that offers, as the name suggests, wireless access to a wireless local area network (WLAN).  While cell phone technology is often discussed as a form of wireless networking, it is not the same as the wireless local area network (WLAN) technology discussed here.   In computer networking you would use the term Wireless Access Point (WAP) to identify the device being used, and the term Wi-Fi to identify the specific technology. rather than Wi-Fi access point.

Specifically the term "Wi-Fi" is a trademark of a trade association known as the Wi-Fi Alliance. The marketing company Interbrand, known for creating brand names, was hired to create a brand name to market the new technology, and the name Wi-Fi was chosen. The term "Wi-Fi" with the dash, is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance.

From a technical perspective WLAN technology is defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with networks carrying variable size packets, which makes it different from cell phone based networks,  802.11 is a subset of the family specific to WLAN technology. Victor "Vic" Hayes was the first chair of the IEEE 802.11 group which finalized the wireless standard in 1997.

How are wireless access points used?

In the business world Wireless Access Points (WAP) are fairly common. On a business network your desktop computers (workstations) are connected via wire, but you probably have several WAPs (Wireless Access Points) for your laptop users.

If you are a visitor to a business network you may notice WAPs set up for office staff as well as visitors. This is becoming very common. You see this in government locations, perhaps even where you get your car serviced you can take your notebook into a lounge where you can use a "guest network" to connect to the internet.

Let's say you have a large home, and it is wired for data, as in it has ethernet ports through out your home. You want to convert that to a wireless access point. It has nothing to do with routing or switching. In wireless communications the "media" is a type of radio wave that communicates from your wireless adapter to the Wireless Access Point.

If your home office is in the basement, and that is the location of your current connection device (router, switch, wireless access point) where everything plugs in.  On the second floor of your house you have an ethernet port in your bedroom, but you want to use a tablet to surf the web, or perhaps use some internet appliance with your bedroom television.  The signal from the wireless access point in your basement is too weak.  You don't need to purchase another device that is a router and switch and WAP, all you need is the WAP (wireless access point).  So you simply buy a device that is ONLY a WAP, and plug it into your ethernet connection.

What is a wireless adapter?

Comparing a wireless network to a wired one, in a wired network your computer workstation has a NIC (Network Interface Card) which in a typical Ethernet network has an 8P8C (Eight Position, Eight Contact) modular jack on it where the network cable plugs into your computer.  From your computer the other end of the network cable plugs into some other type of device such as a switch or router, where traffic on your network is managed and distributed. On a wireless network the wireless adapter takes the place of the NIC.

How do I use ad hoc on a wireless network?

Ad hoc networks refer to networks created for a particular purpose. They are often created on-the-fly and for one-time or temporary use. If you don’t have a crossover cable to connect two notebooks or netbooks you can use their wireless capabilities to exchange files between without the need for any other than the computer itself. Instead of configuring your wireless adapter to connect to a wireless access point or router, you configure your wireless adapter to connect to another computer.

In the wireless world an ad hoc network is the equivalent of a peer to peer network.  In very small home networks, you may have two or three computers where you share resources between them, and to do so you set up a "peer to peer" network. Much like peer to peer networks in the wired world, ad hoc networks have management and security issues beyond that of the typical infrastructure network.

If your computer never leaves your house, having it set up to share files with another computer in your home may not be an issue you have to worry about.  On the other hand, if you travel with your computer, having ad hoc set up on your portable computer could create issues. Wireless devices in ad hoc mode offer minimal security against unwanted incoming connections, and there is a large security risk in using an ad hoc connection to an unknown computer, as you are exposing your computer to file sharing with strangers.

In some cases computers in public are purposely set up to look for and connect to other computers in ad hoc mode in order to steal information from them.  When using your computer in public hotspots you typically will be looking for a Wireless Network Connection, and ignore an attempt to connect with a strange computer using an ad hoc connection.

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If you are not sure what is the best technology choice for you, and you need some ideas, or if you want to keep up to date on hot topics in technology, check out the Guru 42 small business and technology blog  where we share our views and comments on the technology news of the day.

 

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The evolution of the Internet and the birth of TCP/IP

ComputerGuru -

The creation of the protocol suite TCP/IP as the basic set of rules for computers to communicate was one of the last major phases in the development of this global network we now call the Internet.

The internet was not something born of a single idea, but rather a gradual evolution, and the work of many people over many years.

The idea started with a vision to create a decentralized computer network, whereby every computer was connected to each other, but if one member of the systems was hit, the others would remain unaffected.

From the initial idea of a decentralized computer network came the concept of packet switching. During the 1960s Paul Baran developed the concept of packet switching networks while conducting research at the historic RAND organization.


What is a Protocol?

Once the concept of packet switching was developed the next stage in the evolution was to create a language that would be understood by all computer systems.

The network concept of protocols would establish a standard set of rules that would enable different types of computers, with different hardware and software platforms, to communicate in spite of their differences. Protocols describe both the format that a message must take as well as the way in which messages are exchanged between computers.

During the 1970s Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf would collaborate as key members of a team to create TCP/IP, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), the building blocks of the modern internet.

In 1972, Robert E. Kahn joined the DARPA Information Processing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-based radio packet networks, and recognized the value of being able to communicate across both. In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, the developer of the existing ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP) protocol, joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol generation for the ARPANET.

What is an RFC?

The concept of Request for Comments (RFC) documents was started by Steve Crocker in 1969 to help record unofficial notes on the development of ARPANET. RFCs have since become official documents of Internet specifications.

In computer network engineering, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a formal document published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), and the global community of computer network researchers, to establish Internet standards.

TCP/IP RFC History

The creation of TCP/IP as the basic set of rules for computers to communicate was one of the last major phases in the development of this global network we now call the Internet. Many additional members of the TCP/IP family of protocols continue to be developed, expanding of the basic principals established by Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf back in the 1970s.

In 1981 the TCP/IP standards were published as RFCs 791, 792 and 793 and adopted for use. On January 1, 1983, TCP/IP protocols became the only approved protocol on the ARPANET, the predecessor to today's internet.

Links to learn more:

Check out our site Geek History where we discuss the evolution of the ARPANET and TCP/IP

Why was the internet created: 1957 Sputnik launches ARPA
http://geekhistory.com/content/why-was-internet-created-1957-sputnik-launches-arpa

When was internet invented: J.C.R. Licklider guides 1960s ARPA Vision
http://geekhistory.com/content/when-was-internet-invented-jcr-licklider-guides-1960s-arpa-vision

In the 1960s Paul Baran developed packet switching
http://geekhistory.com/content/1960s-paul-baran-developed-packet-switching

The 1980s internet protocols become universal language of computers
http://geekhistory.com/content/1980s-internet-protocols-become-universal-language-computers
 


 

Tags: 

The evolution of the Internet and the birth of TCP/IP

ComputerGuru -

The creation of the protocol suite TCP/IP as the basic set of rules for computers to communicate was one of the last major phases in the development of this global network we now call the Internet.

The internet was not something born of a single idea, but rather a gradual evolution, and the work of many people over many years.

The idea started with a vision to create a decentralized computer network, whereby every computer was connected to each other, but if one member of the systems was hit, the others would remain unaffected.

From the initial idea of a decentralized computer network came the concept of packet switching. During the 1960s Paul Baran developed the concept of packet switching networks while conducting research at the historic RAND organization.


What is a Protocol?

Once the concept of packet switching was developed the next stage in the evolution was to create a language that would be understood by all computer systems.

The network concept of protocols would establish a standard set of rules that would enable different types of computers, with different hardware and software platforms, to communicate in spite of their differences. Protocols describe both the format that a message must take as well as the way in which messages are exchanged between computers.

During the 1970s Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf would collaborate as key members of a team to create TCP/IP, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), the building blocks of the modern internet.

In 1972, Robert E. Kahn joined the DARPA Information Processing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-based radio packet networks, and recognized the value of being able to communicate across both. In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, the developer of the existing ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP) protocol, joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol generation for the ARPANET.

What is an RFC?

The concept of Request for Comments (RFC) documents was started by Steve Crocker in 1969 to help record unofficial notes on the development of ARPANET. RFCs have since become official documents of Internet specifications.

In computer network engineering, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a formal document published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), and the global community of computer network researchers, to establish Internet standards.

TCP/IP RFC History

The creation of TCP/IP as the basic set of rules for computers to communicate was one of the last major phases in the development of this global network we now call the Internet. Many additional members of the TCP/IP family of protocols continue to be developed, expanding of the basic principals established by Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf back in the 1970s.

In 1981 the TCP/IP standards were published as RFCs 791, 792 and 793 and adopted for use. On January 1, 1983, TCP/IP protocols became the only approved protocol on the ARPANET, the predecessor to today's internet.

Links to learn more:

Check out our site Geek History where we discuss the evolution of the ARPANET and TCP/IP

Why was the internet created: 1957 Sputnik launches ARPA
http://geekhistory.com/content/why-was-internet-created-1957-sputnik-launches-arpa

When was internet invented: J.C.R. Licklider guides 1960s ARPA Vision
http://geekhistory.com/content/when-was-internet-invented-jcr-licklider-guides-1960s-arpa-vision

In the 1960s Paul Baran developed packet switching
http://geekhistory.com/content/1960s-paul-baran-developed-packet-switching

The 1980s internet protocols become universal language of computers
http://geekhistory.com/content/1980s-internet-protocols-become-universal-language-computers
 


 

Tags: 

Last remnants of Westinghouse Electric for sale

Guru 42 Blog -

A Wall Street Journal article proclaims, "Westinghouse, Once an Industrial Powerhouse, Is on Brink of Sale."

The article talks about the current Westinghouse Electric Co, "a faded industrial giant that once helped electrify the world," as if the company being sold was the same company founded in 1886 by George Westinghouse. It's not, it is one last remnant of the original Westinghouse Electric that still bears the Westinghouse name.

The empire created by George Westinghouse, and the variety of products that carried the Westinghouse name have been split up over various companies over the years through a variety of mergers and acquisitions. The Westinghouse Electric mentioned in the article is the US based nuclear power company formed in 1998 from the nuclear power division of the original Westinghouse Electric Corporation.  The company retained the Westinghouse name even though it was acquired by Toshiba in 2005.  The Westinghouse nuclear power company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in March 2017 and is being purchased by the company Brookfield Business Partners.

The current American mass media CBS Corporation, focused on commercial broadcasting, inherited much of the original Westinghouse Electric Company. When CBS Corporation was acquired by Viacom in 1999 that technically marked the end of the original Westinghouse Corporation. In 2005 CBS and Viacom split up, and the CBS Corporation lives on.

We will be watching to see if a new nuclear company creayed from the assets of the current Westinghouse Electric still carries the name Westinghouse. At one time the two major companies that dominated our world of electricity and electric appliances were Westinghouse and General Electric, which can be traced to Thomas Edison.

Interesting, the brand name of "Westinghouse" is still owned by the CBS Corporation. (Westinghouse heritage)

The names of Westinghouse Electric and General Electric are slowing fading away in corporate America, but the legacy of the great inventor and industrialist George Westinghouse lives on at GeekHistory.
 

A photo of  Westinghouse generators at Edward Dean Adams Power Plant in Niagara Fall, the first large-scale, alternating current electric generating plant in the world, built in 1895, reminds us of the legacy of Westinghouse.

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